Learn English Grammar Faster and Easier with PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook: A Comprehensive Guide to Master English Grammar
Do you want to learn English grammar in a simple and easy way? Do you want to improve your writing and speaking skills in English? Do you want to have a handy reference guide that covers all the essential aspects of English grammar? If you answered yes to any of these questions, then you need PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook.
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook is a digital book that provides a comprehensive overview of English grammar rules and concepts. It covers everything from the basics of parts of speech and sentence structure to the advanced topics of punctuation and spelling. It also includes examples, exercises, quizzes, and tips to help you practice and master English grammar.
In this article, we will show you what PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook is all about and why you should use it to learn English grammar. We will also give you some useful information on how to avoid common grammar errors and how to learn English grammar effectively. By the end of this article, you will have a clear idea of how PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook can help you achieve your goals in learning English.
The Basics of English Grammar
Before we dive into the details of PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook, let's review some of the basic concepts of English grammar. English grammar is the set of rules that govern how words are used and arranged in a language. It helps us communicate clearly and accurately with others. There are eight main parts of speech in English grammar:
Nouns are words that name people, places, things, or ideas. For example, book, dog, city, love.
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns. For example, he, she, it, they.
Verbs are words that show actions or states of being. For example, run, sing, be, have.
Adjectives are words that describe or modify nouns or pronouns. For example, big, red, beautiful, smart.
Adverbs are words that describe or modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. They often answer the questions how, when, where, why, or to what extent. For example, quickly, yesterday, here, very, too.
Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun or pronoun and another word in a sentence. They often indicate the position, direction, time, or manner of something. For example, in, on, under, from, with.
Conjunctions are words that join two or more words, phrases, or clauses together. They can be coordinating (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so), subordinating (because, although, since, unless, etc.), or correlative (either...or, neither...nor, both...and, etc.).
Interjections are words that express emotions or feelings. They are usually followed by an exclamation mark or a comma. For example, wow, ouch, yay, oops.
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook explains each part of speech in detail and provides examples and exercises to help you understand and use them correctly.
The Parts of a Sentence
A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. It has two main parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the person, place, thing, or idea that the sentence is about. The predicate is the part that tells something about the subject. It usually contains a verb and other words that complete its meaning.
The dog barked loudly.
In this sentence,
The subject is the dog.
The predicate is barked loudly.
The verb is barked.
The adverb is loudly.
A sentence can also have other parts that add more information to the subject or the predicate. These are called objects, complements, and modifiers.
An object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of a verb or shows the result of the action. It can be direct (answers the question what or whom) or indirect (answers the question to whom or for whom).
A complement is a word or phrase that completes the meaning of a verb. It can be a subject complement (follows a linking verb and renames or describes the subject) or an object complement (follows an action verb and renames or describes the object).
A modifier is a word or phrase that modifies or describes another word in a sentence. It can be an adjective (modifies a noun or pronoun), an adverb (modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb), a phrase (a group of words without a subject and verb), or a clause (a group of words with a subject and verb).
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook shows you how to identify and use these parts of a sentence correctly and effectively.
The Types of Sentences
Sentences can be classified according to their structure and their purpose. According to their structure,
- there are four types of sentences: simple, compound, complex, and compound-complex. - A simple sentence has one independent clause and no dependent clauses. An independent clause is a group of words that can stand alone as a complete sentence. For example,
I like pizza.
- A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses joined by a comma and a coordinating conjunction (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so) or by a semicolon. For example,
I like pizza, but my brother prefers pasta.
- A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. A dependent clause is a group of words that cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. It usually begins with a subordinating conjunction (because, ```html since, unless, etc.) or a relative pronoun (who, whom, which, that, etc.). For example,
Because I like pizza, I order it every weekend.
- A compound-complex sentence has two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. For example,
Although I like pizza, I don't eat it every day, but my brother does.
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook teaches you how to form and punctuate these types of sentences correctly and how to avoid run-on sentences and sentence fragments. According to their purpose, there are four types of sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, and exclamatory. - A declarative sentence makes a statement or gives information. It ends with a period. For example,
Pizza is delicious.
- An interrogative sentence asks a question. It ends with a question mark. For example,
Do you like pizza?
- An imperative sentence gives a command or a request. It ends with a period or an exclamation mark. For example,
Please pass me the pizza.
- An exclamatory sentence expresses a strong emotion or feeling. It ends with an exclamation mark. For example,
I love pizza!
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook helps you use these types of sentences appropriately and effectively to convey your message and tone. The Sentence Patterns
Sentence patterns are the basic structures of sentences that show how the parts of speech are arranged and related to each other. There are five common sentence patterns in English:
- Subject-verb (S-V): The subject is followed by an intransitive verb (a verb that does not take an object). For example,
The baby cried.
- Subject-verb-object (S-V-O): The subject is followed by a transitive verb (a verb that takes an object) and an object. For example,
The girl ate an apple.
- Subject-verb-complement (S-V-C): The subject is followed by a linking verb (a verb that connects the subject to a complement) and a subject complement. A subject complement can be a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, or a phrase that renames or describes the subject. For example,
The sky is blue.
- Subject-verb-object-complement (S-V-O-C): The subject is followed by a transitive verb, an object, and an object complement. An object complement can be a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, or a phrase that renames or describes the object. For example,
The teacher called him lazy.
- Subject-verb-adverbial (S-V-A): The subject is followed by an intransitive verb and an adverbial. An adverbial can be an adverb, a prepositional phrase, or a clause that modifies the verb and answers the questions how, when, where, why, or to what extent. For example,
He ran fast.
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook shows you how to recognize and use these sentence patterns correctly and how to vary them to create more complex and interesting sentences. The Phrases and Clauses
A phrase is a group of words that acts as a single part of speech in a sentence. It does not have a subject and a verb. A clause is a group of words that has a subject and a verb. It can be independent (can stand alone as a complete sentence) or dependent (cannot stand alone as a complete sentence). There are many types of phrases and clauses in English grammar:
- A noun phrase is a phrase that acts as a noun in a sentence. It usually consists of a noun and its modifiers. For example,
The old man walked slowly.
- A verb phrase is a phrase that acts as a verb in a sentence. It usually consists of a main verb and its auxiliaries (helping verbs). For example,
She has been studying hard for the exam.
- An adjective phrase is a phrase that acts as an adjective in a sentence. It usually consists of an adjective and its modifiers. It can modify a noun or a pronoun. For example,
He is very smart and talented.
- An adverb phrase is a phrase that acts as an adverb in a sentence. It usually consists of an adverb and its modifiers. It can modify a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. For example,
She sings beautifully and gracefully.
- A prepositional phrase is a phrase that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or a pronoun (the object of the preposition). It can act as an adjective or an adverb in a sentence. For example,
The book is on the table.
- A participial phrase is a phrase that begins with a participle (a verb form that can act as an adjective). It can modify a noun or a pronoun in a sentence. For example,
Barking loudly, the dog scared the thief.
- A gerund phrase is a phrase that begins with a gerund (a verb form that ends in -ing and can act as a noun). It can function as a subject, an object, or a complement in a sentence. For example,
Reading books is my hobby.
- An infinitive phrase is a phrase that begins with an infinitive (a verb form that is preceded by to and can act as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb). It can function as a subject, an object, or a complement in a sentence. For example,
I want to travel the world.
- An appositive phrase is a phrase that follows a noun or a pronoun and renames or explains it. It is usually set off by commas. For example,
My friend, a famous singer, is coming to visit me.
- A relative clause is a clause that begins with a relative pronoun (who, whom, which, that, etc.) or a relative adverb (when, where, why, etc.). It modifies a noun or a pronoun in the main clause. It can be restrictive (essential to the meaning of the sentence) or nonrestrictive (nonessential to the meaning of the sentence). For example,
The book that I bought yesterday is very interesting.
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook explains each type of phrase and clause in detail and provides examples and exercises to help you understand and use them correctly. The Punctuation Marks
Punctuation marks are symbols that help us organize and clarify our writing. They indicate the pauses, intonation, and emphasis of our speech. They also show the relationships between words, phrases, and clauses in our sentences. There are many punctuation marks in English grammar, but here are some of the most common ones:
- A period (.) is used to mark the end of a declarative or an imperative sentence. It can also be used to indicate abbreviations. For example,
I like pizza.
Please pass me the pizza.
Mrs. Smith loves pizza.
- A comma (,) is used to separate items in a list, to separate independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction, to set off introductory words or phrases, to set off nonrestrictive phrases or clauses, to set off appositives, to indicate direct speech, and to avoid confusion or ambiguity. For example,
I like cheese, pepperoni, and mushrooms on my pizza.
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Before eating pizza, I always wash my hands.
The pizza, which was very hot, burned my tongue.
My friend, a famous singer, is coming to visit me.
"I love pizza," she said.
Let's eat, grandma.
- A semicolon (;) is used to separate independent clauses that are not joined by a coordinating conjunction, to separate independent clauses that are joined by a conjunctive adverb (however, therefore, moreover, etc.) or a transitional expression (for example, in fact, on the other hand, etc.), or to separate items in a list that contain commas. For example,
Some people like pizza; others don't.
I like pizza; however, I can't eat it every day.
I ordered pizza with cheese, pepperoni, and mushrooms; salad with lettuce, tomatoes, and cucumbers; and soda with ice and lemon.
- A colon (:) is used to introduce a list, a quotation, an explanation, or a conclusion. It can also be used to separate hours and minutes, titles and subtitles, and ratios. For example,
These are the ingredients for pizza: flour, water, yeast, salt, oil, tomato sauce, cheese, and toppings.
As Shakespeare said: "To be or not to be, that is the question."
The reason is simple: I love pizza.
The result was clear: he won the contest.
The time is 12:30 p.m.
The book is called PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook: A Comprehensive Guide to Master English Grammar.
The ratio of cheese to pepperoni is 2:1.
- An apostrophe (') is used to indicate possession, to form contractions (shortened forms of words or phrases), or to form plurals of letters, numbers, or symbols. For example,
This is John's pizza.
I can't eat pizza right now.
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- A quotation mark (") is used to enclose direct speech, quotations, titles of short works, or words used in a special sense. It can be single (') or double ("). For example,
"I love pizza," she said.
As Shakespeare said, "To be or not to be, that is the question."
I read an article called "The History of Pizza" in a magazine.
The word "pizza" comes from the Latin word "picea."
- A parenthesis (()) is used to enclose additional or explanatory information that is not essential to the main sentence. It can also be used to enclose numbers or letters that indicate a list or an order. For example,
Pizza (a flat bread with cheese and toppings) is my favorite food.
To make pizza, you need to follow these steps: (1) make the dough, (2) spread the sauce, (3) add the cheese and toppings, and (4) bake it in the oven.
- A dash () is used to indicate a sudden break or change in thought, to emphasize a word or phrase, or to set off parenthetical information that is more important or dramatic than that enclosed by parentheses. For example,
I was about to eat my pizzawhen the phone rang.
Pizza is not just foodit's a way of life.
The best pizza in townaccording to many customersis from Joe's Pizzeria.
- A hyphen (-) is used to join two or more words that form a compound word, to join prefixes or suffixes to words, or to divide words at the end of a line. For example,
I ordered a cheese-and-pepperoni pizza.
She is a well-known singer.
This book is very inter-
- An ellipsis (...) is used to indicate the omission of some words from a quotation, a pause in speech or thought, or an unfinished sentence. For example,
"To be or not to be... that is the question."
I don't know what to say...
If you don't eat your pizza...
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook explains each punctuation mark in detail and provides examples and exercises to help you use them correctly and effectively. The Capitalization Rules
Capitalization is the use of uppercase letters for certain words in writing. It helps us identify the names of specific people, places, things, or ideas. It also helps us indicate the beginning of a sentence or a direct quotation. There are many capitalization rules in English grammar, but here are some of the most common ones:
- Capitalize the first word of a sentence. For example,
Pizza is delicious.
- Capitalize the first word of a direct quotation that is a complete sentence. For example,
She said, "Pizza is my favorite food."
- Capitalize proper nouns (names of specific people, places, things, or ideas). For example,
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- Capitalize titles of people when they are used before or after their names or as part of their names. For example,
President Biden, Dr. Smith, Queen Elizabeth II.
- Capitalize titles of works (books, movies, songs, etc.) when they are used as names. Capitalize the first word and all the other words except articles (a, an, the), coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so), and prepositions (in, on, under, etc.) unless they are the first or last word. For example,
PdfReadyReckonerEnglishGrammarBook: A Com